Archive for category Religion
Hitler was born on the 20th of April, 1889 in Austria. He was the 4th child of 6, his mother was named Clara, and she was the 3rd wife to his father. Hitler lived a disturbing childhood where his father constantly beat him. scholars suggest that this part of his childhood might have shaped his personality. He was a smart student but failed his 6th grade class when he first attended Realschule school, and for a year he attended the class with Ludwig Wittgenstein who is one of the most famous philosophers of the 20th century although Ludwig was 2 years older than Hitler. Hitler wanted to be an artist, rebelling on his father who wanted him to be a Customs Officer, and when his father died in January, 1903, he wasn’t improved in school, he simply left it when he turned 16 and got no certificate.
Starting from the year 1905, Hitler lived a bohemian life in Vienna, and was refused twice by the Art Academy in both 1907 and 1908 because he wasn’t suitable for the field of art. They advised him to study architecture because it suited him more. He was convinced of this advise where he wrote in his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) the following “In only few days, I realized from the bottom of my heart that I wanted to be an architect. And actually, taking this road was very difficult for me because it was necessary to finish high school and I didn’t, which was very essential”.
Hitler said that the very first anti-Semite feelings showed up when he was in Vienna where lots of Jews inhabited it, fleeing away from the organized killings they suffered in Russia. Antisemitism was formed in Hitler through various ways, through the music of Wagner who was one of the leaders of the Pan-Germanic movement that aimed to unite all of the German speaking people in Europe under one flag. Also through the writing of Martin Luther (the founder of Protestantism) about the deceiving of the Jews named “On the Jews and their lies”, and in his book Mein Kampf, Hitler pointed out that Martin Luther was a great thinker and warrior, along with Wagner. Hitler’s antisemitism was first the result of religious intolerance but later was transformed into racism where he stated many times that the Jews are the enemies of the Aryan race. Hitler blamed the Jews on the German defeat of the first World War, and also the economical failures of Germany because most of Germany’s bankers during and after the first World War were Jewish business men.
Hitler received some of his father’s possessions in 1913 where he later moved to Munich, he wrote in Mein Kampf that he’s eager to live in the real Germany. In Munich, he showed even more interest in architecture, and of course this helped him from fleeing the Military duty service in Austria but later the Munich police arrested him, and after physically checking him, Austria declared that he’s not suitable for Military service. When Germany entered the first World War in 1913, he begged the King of Bavaria, Ludwig III to allow him to serve in the army, and the King agreed, so Hitler eventually joined the Bavarian army.
During the years of the first World War, Hitler became more sure than ever that he was born to be Germany’s savior. His anti-Semite longings grew stronger and the war taught him to be merciless and ruthless. He described war as the best thing the man can ever experience, and he was shocked due to the German surrender in 1918. He like other nationalists and right wingers believed in the Stab-in-the-back legend which is a notion that widely believes that the German army wasn’t defeated but rather betrayed by civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy. The German government leaders who signed the surrender on November 11, 1918 were called the November traitors.
Entering the World of Politics
In July, 1919, Hitler was appointed a spy in the German Police “The Verbindungsmann” to penetrate the DAP party. And while spying on the party, Hitler was affected by the DAP’s leader Anton Drexler who was anti-Semite, and anti-Capitalism. Hitler became active in the party, and Drexler showed a deep interest in Hitler’s talents in speeches, and after few years, Hitler claimed that he was the 7th founder of the Party.
In an attempt to increase the popularity of the party, they changed their name to The National Socialist German Workers’ Party…….commonly known in English as the Nazi Party.
Hitler was thrown out of the army in 1920, but his party colleagues showed a big and deep support for him. He became perfect in giving speeches, and had a bad reputation outside his party of his arrogance, racism, and anti-Semite speeches that targeted Jews and Marxists. Hitler arranged a coup in 1923 but failed, and was jailed due to that failed attempt. The party was banned in Bavaria after that attempt, but Hitler convinced the PM of Bavaria that the Nazi party will try to reach to authority through the legitimate ways of democracy.
Rise to rule and domination of the Nazi party (1933)
In 1933, Hitler along with his party rose to rule in a full democratic elections by telling the masses that he would save Germany from the economical recession that strike the world, and to put an end to both the Versailles treaty that humiliated Germany in WWI and the increasing powers of the Jews who stabbed the Germans in the back during the war.
Hitler began taking the precautions of migrating the Jews out of Germany through signing an agreement with the Zionist leaders on August 25, 1933, that was designed to help facilitate the emigration of German Jews to Palestine. This agreement was called The Haavara Agreement, and although it helped the Jews migrate, it forced them to give up most of their possessions to Germany before departing. Those assets would later be transferred to Palestine as German export goods. This operation was run by a Zionist citrus planting money called Hantoea which took money from prospective immigrants and then use this money to buy German goods. These goods, along with the immigrants, would then be shipped to Palestine. In Palestine, import merchants would then buy the goods from the immigrants, liquidating their investment. After the invasion of Poland in 1939, the continuation of the Haavara agreement seemed no longerpossible, so in 1940, the underground Zionist group Lehi (Militant Zionist group founded by Avraham Stern in the British Mandate of Palestine) met with Von Hentigo to propose direct military cooperation with the Nazis for the continuation of the Jewish migration to Palestine, this proposal however did not produce results because the Jews at the time represented a massive labor force for Germany in the concentration camps.
Hitler believed that the woman’s role is to stay in her house and raise the children of the next generations, and through his charming effective speeches and the brilliant propaganda done by the propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, he was able to convince most of Germany’s women to stay at their houses and leave a space for unemployed men to take over their jobs which of course resulted in a massive economical advance which led to the developing of the infrastructure that was described as the biggest developing series of projects Germany ever had. The farmers and the workers felt a productive change in their lifestyle and their salaries increased, although the party had to decrease it right before the war. Hitler’s government had a deep interest in a new architectural vision done by the most famous architect under the Reich, Albert Speer who was also the minister of arms and ammunition during the war.
Hitler had a major paramilitary organization formed in 1925 was called the Schutzstaffel…..or in a more famous way, the SS unit which was under Heinrich Himmler’s command. It was originally existent for the personal safety of Hitler, but during the years of war (1939-1945), the SS committed crimes against humanity and spread terror in 1939 through arresting commies, Jews, gypsies, and even Catholic Christians. It’s Einsatzgruppen unit, or Death Squads, were personally responsible for the crimes committed in the concentration camps which were famously known as the Holocaust that took the lives of 6 million Jews, 3 million Poles, 1.5 million gypsies, and thousands of gays, lesbians, and mentally and physically handicapped due to the straight gun shooting, or death cause of medical experiments, exhaustion, hunger and cold.
Hitler wouldn’t have reached that position and condition of control without the help of his ministers who were without any exaggeration brilliant in what they do. We’ll take the most important of them one by one, to shed the light on the the role they played during these 10 years of inferno.
1- Joseph Goebbels : Was a German politician and the propaganda minister of Nazi Germany. He’s considered to be one of Hitler’s closest associates and the most devoted Nazi in the party, he truly believed in the ideology that shaped it. The very first act he did after being appointed a minister in 1933 was the burning of the books that were rejected by the Nazis, he totally grasped control over the media, arts, and information in Germany. Goebbels stated in his diaries that his major influences were Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler, and Houston Stewart Chamberlain. He knew very well how to manipulate the masses into attracting them to the Nazi disease of intolerance and racism; his techniques are widely used by most of the world’s media to drug the people’s minds. He explains his work by saying “If you tell a lie long and loud enough, people will eventually start to believe it”. A technique looks like it’s doing it’s job pretty well. Goebbels showed full support to Hitler concerning the Jewish matter when he wrote “With regard to the Jewish Question, the Führer is determined to make a clean sweep of it. He prophesied that, if they brought about another world war, they would experience their annihilation. That was no empty talk. The world war is here [this was the week Germany declared war on the United States]. The annihilation of Jewry must be the necessary consequence. The question is to be viewed without any sentimentality. We’re not there to have sympathy with the Jews, but only sympathy with our own German people. If the German people has again now sacrificed around 160,000 dead in the eastern campaign, the originators of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.” and in 1942, Goebbels continued to press on the final solution of the Jewish question to be carried out quickly as soon as possible when the Wehrmacht forces were able to control Eastern Soviet Russia which will allow them to deport all the inhabitant Jews there to their concentration camps. He wrote “The Jews are now being deported to the east. A fairly barbaric procedure, not to be described in any greater detail, is being used here, and not much more remains of the Jews themselves. In general, it can probably be established that 60 percent of them must be liquidated, while only 40 percent can be put to work. A judgment is being carried out on the Jews which is barbaric, but fully deserved.” . At the end of the war, during the battle of Berlin, Goebbels speeches became suicidal and apocalyptic, knowing that the end is near and nowhere to run, but as he became more depressed, he even became more ruthless especially when a German army general came to him and said that the situation in Berlin is devastating, soldiers aren’t trained enough and victory is far from the sight, Goebbels reply was “Their endless faith of final victory can compensate the situation.” then his general replied to him by saying that without weapons, the soldiers cannot fight and got no chance, therefore, their death would be useless, Goebbels finally replied in rage and said “I will not feel sorry for them….I repeat, I will not feel sorry for them. The people brought this to themselves, this might be a surprise to you but do not deceive yourself, we haven’t forced the people on anything, they gave us authorization and now they pay for it’s price.”. The idea of surrendering never came to Hitler’s mind despite the continuing requests and pleads by his army generals and his associates except for Goebbels who thought the same like Hitler, that surrender is no option. When Goebbels knew that Hitler committed suicide, he said “‘It is a great pity that such a man is not with us any longer. But there is nothing to be done. For us, everything is lost now and the only way left for us is the one which Hitler chose. I shall follow his example”. On the 1st of May, 1945, the Vice-admiral Hans-Erich Voss saw Goebbels and told him that him and other 10 generals would leave and offered him to leave with them but Goebbels replied “The captain must not leave his sinking ship. I have thought about it all and decided to stay here. I have nowhere to go because with little children I will not be able to make it.”. Later on the evening, Goebbels arranged with the SS dentist, Helmut Kunz to inject his 6 children with morphine and wait till they become unconscious and crush an ampule of cyanide in each of their mouths. Helmut’s testimony stated that he injected the kids with morphine, but then it was Magda Goebbels who crushed the cyanide ampules in her kids’ mouths. All of her kids’ names started with the letter H,….Helga (12 years Old), Hildegard (11 Years Old), Helmut (9 Years Old), Holdine (8 Years Old), Hedwig (7 Years Old), and Heidrun (4 Years Old). Afterward, Goebbels and his wife Magda went outside the bunker to the outer gardens where Goebbels shot his wife and later shot himself dead. It was the end of Joseph Goebbels….the propaganda monster of the 20th century.
2- Heinrich Himmler : Himmler was a military commander, a leading member of the Nazi party, Chief of the German Police, and the Minister of Interior from 1943. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany, and one of the directly responsible for the Holocaust. He was in the first World War, and when the war was over, he studied agriculture in Munich, worked in a Chickens farm but didn’t succeed. He later joined the Nazi party in 1925 in the SS unit, and Hitler appointed him his personal guard. Himmler was able to develop the SS in a short period of time, making it one of the most well trained militias. The members of the SS special forces in 1929 were 250, and by the year 1933, it became 52,000. Himmler made sure to check himself the purity of the applicant’s blood because Hitler refused to accept any non-Aryan in his units. Himmler had 2 secret speeches known as the Posen Speeches, speeches concerned the treating of Eastern European peoples which said “One basic principle must be the absolute rule for the SS men : We must be honest, decent, loyal and comradely to members of our own bloodand to nobody else. What happens to a Russian, to a Czech, does not interest me in the slightest. What other nations can offer in the way of good blood of our type, we will take, if necessary, by kidnapping their children and raising them here with us. Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only so far as we need them as slaves for our culture; otherwise, it is of no interest to me. Whether 10,000 Russian females fall down from exhaustion while digging an antitank ditch interests me only insofar as the anti-tank ditch for Germany is finished.”, concerning the extermination of the Jews that said “I am now referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. It’s one of those things that is easily said: ‘The Jewish people are being exterminated’, says every party member, ‘this is very obvious, it’s in our program, elimination of the Jews, extermination, we’re doing it, hah, a small matter.’ […] But of all those who talk this way, none had observed it, none had endured it. Most of you here know what it means when 100 corpses lie next to each other, when 500 lie there or when 1,000 are lined up. To have endured this and at the same time to have remained a decent person – with exceptions due to human weaknesses – had made us tough. This is a page of glory never mentioned and never to be mentioned. […] We have the moral right, we had the duty to our people to do it, to kill this people who wanted to kill us.”, Albert Speer remark and the discussion of the Ghetto Warsaw uprising which said “This entire ghetto was producing fur coats, dresses, and the like. Whenever we tried to get at it in the past we were told: Stop! Armaments factory! Of course, this has nothing to do with Party Comrade Speer. It wasn’t your doing. It is this portion of alleged armaments factories that Party Comrade Speer and I intend to clear out in the next few weeks.” and also some other speeches that had similar contents and phrases. In 13 March, 1945, Himmler left the leadership and fled away, trying to negotiate his surrender to the allies as long as he won’t be convicted in the trials after the War. When Hitler knew of that he flew into rage, made him angry because he always believed that Himmler was second in loyalty only to Joseph Goebbels that he only called him the loyal Heinrich. At the end of the war, Himmler tried to escape the allies through disguising but the British forces arrested him in Bremen in the 22nd of May, 1945. He was supposed to be sent to trial in Nuremberg, but he committed suicide due to a portion of poison.
3- Herman Goering : Goering was one of the most famous leaders of Nazi Germany. He’s the founder of the Gestapo (The Secret Police). In 1922, he joined the Nazi party and was the head of the SA unit, the minister of economy, and the commander chief of Air force. When Hitler became chancellor of the Third Reich in 1933, he made Goering a minister of the Reich without any specific area of responsibility, which means he was not the head of a ministry. Goering was responsible of Jewish businessmen getting removed from the German economic system. In 1941, he ordered Heydrich to make a plan for the final solution of the Jewish question (The Holocaust). During the war, he was responsible for the loss of air battle against Great Britain which made his ranks in the Nazi party go down and became a source of hatred among the masses for his wealth. On the 20th of April, 1945, he left Hitler’s birthday party, telling him that he had important things to do in Southern Germany. He sent a telegram to Hitler from Berchtesgaden asking Hitler to take over the affairs of the State. Hitler said that this is a telegram of a traitor and a man who shows disrespect to the Fuhrer. During Goering’s sending of the telegram, he started communicating with the allies asking for negotiations concerning his surrender. When Hitler knew of this, he ordered the arresting of whom he called the addicted traitor. On the 9th of May, 1945, Goering surrendered to the Americans and was brought to the Nuremberg trials. He was the third highest ranking Nazi officer to be tried in Nuremberg and he was found guilty. Goering was very defensive in his trial claiming that he was never an anti-Semite, never believed in these atrocities, and had several Jews who had offered to testify on his behalf. However, Albert Speer reported that in the prison yard at Nuremberg, after someone made a remark about Jewish survivors in Hungary, he had overheard Goering say “So, there are still some there? I thought we had knocked off all of them. Somebody slipped up again.”. Goering appeared to be winning the trial through making jokes and finding holes in the prosecution’s case, but he was found guilty and was sentenced to death by hanging by stating “There is nothing to be said in mitigation. ForGoering was often, indeed almost always, the moving force, second only to his leader. He was the leading war aggressor, both as political and as military leader; he was the director of the slave labour programme and the creator of the oppressive programme against the Jews and other races, at home and abroad. All of these crimes he has frankly admitted. On some specific cases there may be conflict of testimony, but in terms of the broad outline, his own admissions are more than sufficiently wide to be conclusive of his guilt. His guilt is unique in its enormity. The record discloses no excuses for this man.” Goering appealed to the court’s deaths sentence if he were shot as a soldier and not executed like a criminal, and the appealing was not accepted. Goering spoke about war and extreme nationalism with Captain Gilbert as recorded in Nuremberg’s diary “Naturally, the common people don’t want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship. …voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.”. Defying the court’s death sentence, Goering committed suicide by taking a potassium cyanide capsule the night before he was to be hanged.
4- Albert Speer : We mentioned this name few times for now due to his importance. Albert Speer was the architect of Nazi Germany, and indeed a genius he was. He was so talented that he became inside Hitler’s inner circle, and of course we might just assume Hitler’s respect for Speer due to Hitler’s love for architecture that he was about to study during his years in Vienna. By the orders of the Fuhrer, Speer made plans of Berlin’s reconstruction. He had deep respect for Hitler especially when he firstly joined the party in 1930. Speer attended several rallies for the party and was disturbed of how Goebbels drove the masses in a frenzy through his fiery speeches. Speer couldn’t end his impression that Hitler made on him, so he applied to join the Nazi party in 1931. Speer was responsible for most of the rallies that took place since the Nazi rise to rule in 193. In 1934, Hitler appointed Speer as the party’s chief architect. Speer was under a strong psychological pressure when he started doing the works and orders of the Fuhrer “Soon after Hitler had given me the first large architectural commissions, I began to suffer from anxiety in long tunnels, in airplanes, or in small rooms. My heart would begin to race, I would become breathless, the diaphragm would seem to grow heavy, and I would get the impression that my blood pressure was rising tremendously… Anxiety amidst all my freedom and power!”. Stalin was a big fan of Speer’s works, and asked him to visit Moscow to get to know the works of the Architect of the Reich closely, but Hitler of course refused, from the fear that Stalin would lay his hands on Speer and put him in a rat hole. Speer had great powers being so close to Hitler that sometimes Nazi officials went around to him to seek direct orders from the Fuhrer. Also Speer was responsible for the labor force in camps which used the most brutal methods, he later commented “the conditions for these prisoners were in fact barbarous, and a sense of profound involvement and personal guilt seizes me whenever I think of them.”. When the third Reich fell, Speer was tried in Nuremberg and been accused of being part of conspiracy against world peace, planning, and waging wars of aggression and lastly crimes against humanity.Speer during the trial admitted his responsibility and said “In political life, there is a responsibility for a man’s own sector. For that he is of course fully responsible. But beyond that there is a collective responsibility when he has been one of the leaders. Who else is to be held responsible for the course of events, if not the closest associates around the Chief of State?”. Speer during the trial was straightforward, honest, and wasn’t beating around the bush. Speer testified that in 1945, he planned to assassinate Hitler by dropping a canister of poison gas into the bunker’s air tank. He said that his plans failed due to a high wall that been built around the air intake. He stated that he was driven by despair when he realized that Hitler refused to surrender and decided that it’s about time for the German people to be extinct due to their loss. Speer said that he simply showed no mercy to the people. Speer was sentenced 20 years in prison and the court’s judgment stated that Speer was one of the few men who had the courage to tell Hitler that the war was lost and to take steps to prevent the senseless destruction of productive facilities and the robbing of civilians lives. Speer spent his full sentence in the Spandau prison in Eastern Germany and he spent most of his time reading classic novels, ancient Egyptian history and biographies. When he was released in 1966, he released 2 best selling books, Inside the Third Reich, and Spandau : The Secret Diaries and later he wrote a third book called Infiltration that revolved around the SS. Speer died in 1981 while he was visiting London and was known of being the Nazi who said sorry.
3- Martin Bormann : Bormann was Hitler’s private secretary and the head of the Party Chancellery. He had an immense power inside the party, was considered to be the closest to Hitler, and had the power to control the access to Hitler. In 1927, he joined the Nazi party and by the orders of Himmler, he became a member of the SS. In 1933, Bormann became the Reich Leader of the party, and in 1941, he served as the personal secretary for Rudolf Hess. In the same year he became the head of the party chancellery and proved to be a mastermind of political infighting. Bormann was responsible for Hitler’s paper works and, without exaggeration, he held the deepest secrets of the Fuhrer and the Nazi party. Bormann’s power grew in 1942 and established off-shore companies that financed Hitler’s needs in the war. Bormann was an atheist who said more than one time that Christianity is incompatible with Nazism, seeing that the Church’s influence is dangerous to the Nazi goals. Hitler master-planned the Kirchenkampf operation (The Church struggle) which was supposed to be operated by Bormann. The operation aimed to bring down the Churches under the control of the State by taking charge of Church finances and governance structures, therefore, the Nazi regime increased it’s imprisonment of resistant clergies, and of course Bormann had in his hands all of the personal files of Germany’s clergies. Some historians like Roger Griffin argued that Hitler and Bormann didn’t only want to control the Churches but also wanted to fully eradicate the Church institution from the future of Nazi Germany. Bormann was the most enthusiastic one among the Nazi officials who was eager was Hitler to fully eradicate the Jews and made sure that Jews from all around Europe be gathered in the ghettos especially Auschwitz to enslave them stating “The permanent elimination of the Jews from the territories of Greater Germany can no longer be carried out by emigration but by the use of ruthless force in the special camps of the East.”. There was an underground battle of influence and power between Bormann and Himmler, but Bormann’s influence was stronger. One day Himmler talked to Bormann on the phone concerning the 40,000 Jews of Poland in ghetto Warsaw and Himmler showed his concerns from Bormann’s using the word extermination rather than the codeword “resettled”, so Bormann ordered the apologetic Himmler not to report on this by phone but by SS couriers. On the 28th of April, 1945, Bormann stated that “Situation very serious . . . Those ordered to rescue the Fuhrer are keeping silent . . . Disloyalty seems to gain the upper hand everywhere . . .Reichskanzlei a heap of rubble.” Bormann and Goebbels witnessed and signed Hitler’s last will that was given to his personal secretary Traudl Junge. On April the 30th and right before he commits suicide, Hitler ordered a breakout for his loyal associates including Bormann and Goebbels; Goebbels refused the order of the Fuhrer which was the first of it’s kind and prefered to stay with him, while Bormann left the Fuhrerbunker with the SS doctor and leader of Hitler youth. Bormann’s route of escape was walking by railways to Lehrter Station and he was never found. The 5th Soviet army was able to put his hands on his diaries. In Nuremberg he was tried in absentia, receiving a death sentence. Rumors and of sightings were reported about Bormann after 20 years, some suggest that he had a plastic surgery while moving from a different European city to the other, some others claimed that he was living well in South America. Reinhard Gehlen, a general in the German army who served as Chief intelligence-gathering of the Eastern front and one of the most notorious Nazis employed by the United States during the Cold War, wrote in his diaries that Bormann was a Soviet Spy, and his awkward disappearance from Berlin at the end of the war was due to his fleeing to his Russian master. The hunt for Bormann lasted 26 years with no success, searching for him from Paraguay to Moscow, and from Norway to Egypt. On December the 7th, 1972, Dr. Hugo Blaschke identified the skull of Bermann and his remains near the Lehrter station. Turned out that he committed suicide with a cyanide capsule to avoid the allies arresting which of course ended Reinhard‘s claims that Bormann was a Soviet spy.
Friedrich Nietzsche Influence
The famous German philosopher, Nietzsche, is sometimes best described as the Prophet of Nazism and the black devil of philosophy. He was an anti-Democracy, anti-Socialism, anti-Christianity, anti-Judaism and indeed a social Darwinist. His belief in Darwin’s theory of evolution led him to the denial of religions along with compassion itself. Nietzsche described the moral man as the “Sick Man” saying that “The sick are the great danger of man, not the evil, not the ‘beasts of prey.’ They who are from the outset botched, oppressed, broken those are they, the weakest are they, who most undermine the life beneath the feet of man, who instill the most dangerous venom and skepticism into our trust in life, in man, in ourselves…Here teem the worms of revenge and vindictiveness; here the air reeks of things secret and unmentionable; here is ever spun the net of the most malignant conspiracy – the conspiracy of the sufferers against the sound and the victorious; here is the sight of the victorious hated.”. Therefore, Nietzsche’s doctrines had their effect on atheism, nihilism, existentialism, and postmodernism. He had a famous statement which was “God is dead” that suggested that if God truly died once as Christianity claim, then it should lead to the loss of any universal perspective, therefore, killing in our souls everything that got to do with sympathy or morality. The victorious should simply wipe out that weak from existence as it is the natural order of life and evolution.
Nietzschism is considered to be the cornerstone of the most radical doctrines like Nazism, Fascism, and recently, Zionism, but many opinions suggest that if Nietzsche had lived during WWII, he would not have been a Nazi. “Had he lived in that era, Nietzsche might not have become a Nazi. His works include numerous condemnations of anti-Semitism and nationalism (and thus were selectively censored by Elizabeth). But the best measure of Nietzsche’s contribution and importance to Nazism is not in conjectures about what Nietzsche might have thought about Nazism, but in the actual reverence of the Nazis for him.” – The Pink Swastika.
Hitler and the Nazi party found in Nietzsche’s philosophy everything they needed to fully construct their ideology that was responsible for the eruption of the Second World War. Nietzsche’s Superman became Hitler’s Super-Nation.Dr. Abdel Wahab el-Messeri says “Nietzschism was the racist manifestation of Romanticism, or we can say it’s the Romanticism of the racist, imperialist age, for it is the philosophical expression of the Darwinist vision of reality. And we’d like to differ here between Nietzsche’s writings and Nietzschism. Nietzsche’s writings is a complex, overlapped, and contradictory issue. But what happened that some main thoughts were isolated from Nietzsche’s system. And these thoughts, and not Nietzsche’s writings, contributed in shaping the understanding of many Europeans in the last decades of the 19th century.” and then he adds “And Nietzschism is the individual, western nihilistic philosophy that expresses the best expression concerning the cultural, and economical conditions for the western society at the height of the Capitalist revolution and the Imperialist expansion.”. Nietzschism can also be described as a Godless religion or atheism that declared him dead, and abstracts the world into it’s materialistic form that’s fully bounded to the rationality of absolute power. What Nietzsche in my opinion simply did was applying Darwin’s theories of evolution on Man in a philosophical understanding, and Nazism was the rational result.
Hitler’s contradictions, or smart policy ?
Hitler in his speeches used to praise Christianity and God, making the masses fall into a hysterical enthusiasm. But was he really a devoted Christian ?. Most of the resources we have says the opposite. Hitler’s table talk is a title given to a series of wartime conversations by Hitler, which were transcribed from 1941 to 1944. His remarks were recorded by Martin Bormann. It was later published by different editors, under different titles, in 3 different languages. And here are some excerpts from the book.
“The heaviest blow that ever struck humanity was the coming of Christianity. Bolshevism is Christianity’s illegitimate child. Both are inventions of the Jew. The deliberate lie in the matter of religion was introduced into the world by Christianity. Bolshevism practices a lie of the same nature, when it claims to bring liberty to men, whereas in reality it seeks only to enslave them. In the ancient world, the relations between men and gods were founded on an instinctive respect. It was a world enlightened by the idea of tolerance. Christianity was the first creed in the world to exterminate its adversaries in the name of love. Its key-note is intolerance.”
As it’s obvious, his criticism to Christianity was very strong, and he never believed in it. He in fact had his plans of ending the influence of Christianity in Germany right after the War, but of course he lost it. Some would find it weird when they know that Hitler respected Islam and favored it on Christianity. “Had Charles Martelnot been victorious at Poitiers, then we should in all probability have been converted to Mohammedanism, that cult which glorifies the heroism and which opens up the seventh Heaven to the bold warrior alone. Then the Germanic races would have conquered the world.”. Sounds like he had the sort of wrong information about Islam as a blood thirsty religion that aims for bloodshed. But later he retreats and says “Without Christianity, we should not have had Islam. The Roman Empire, under Germanic influence, would have developed in the direction of world-domination, and humanity would not have extinguished fifteen centuries of civilization at a single stroke.” . But he just doesn’t stop right there in attacking Christianity but he instead wages his war on religion itself “Originally, religion was merely a prop for human communities. It was a means, not an end in itself. It’s only gradually that it became transformed in this direction, with the object of maintaining the rule of the priests, who can live only to the detriment of Society collectively.”
The fact of an Islamic cooperation with the Nazis cannot be ignored, especially when the grand mufti of Jerusalem Muhammad Amin al-Husayni recruited Muslims for the SS, that there was a whole separate SS unit of Muslims. Also the rise of Nazism in Germany did not target Muslims. But what’s the secret behind these acts ?, was Hitler comfortable with the Islamic ideology, or was it something else ?. Albert Speer says that Hitler only cooperated with the Muslims because he felt the antisemitic views they shared (which appeared only afterthe rise of Zionism that aimed to occupy Palestine and declare it a national land of the Jews, especially that the Jewish Golden age existed at the time of the Islamic rule of the Iberian Peninsula) and Hitler found it a golden chance to gain the Muslims hearts towards him especially that most of the Arab-Muslims lands were occupied by the Great Britain and France. He simply aimed to gain the support of the natives in case the battleground moved from Europe to the Middle East. Albert Speer later wrote in his book “Inside the Third Reich” about Hitler’s respect to Islam by saying “Hitler said that the conquering Arabs, because of their racial inferiority, would in the long run have been unable to contend with the harsher climate and conditions of the country. They could not have kept down the more vigorous natives, so that ultimately not Arabs but Islamized Germans could have stood at the head of this Mohammedan Empire.”. Hitler simply followed the famous saying we all know“The Enemy of my enemy, is my friend”. And it becomes clear when he expresses his original thoughts to Bormann, saying “I m going to become a religious figure. Soon I’ll be the great chief of the Tartars. Already Arabs and Moroccans are mingling my name with their prayers. Amongst the Tartars I’ll become Khan. The only thing of which I shall be incapable is to share the sheiks’ mutton with them. I’m a vegetarian, and they must spare me from their meat. If they don’t wait too long, I’ll fall back on their harems!”.
Hitler was full of contradictions, one second he says he’s a devoted Catholic, and the other second he disses everything about Christianity. This indeed helped him to shape his unidentified character that some argue till this day about his religious beliefs, whether he’s a believer or not, whether he’s even an atheist or not, but the sure thing that his ideology was not the reflection of any religious doctrine, especially the Abrahamic ones.
The Concentration Camps were indeed the black mark that shall be forever remembered in Germany and Europe for it cost the lives of millions and millions whether Jews, Gypsies, Commies, Homosexuals, and handicapped. We’ll mention some of the very famous Concentration Camps that had the biggest roles of this hyena’s crime.
Ghetto Warsaw : It was the largest of all Jewish ghettos in Nazi occupied Europe during WWII. It was established in the Polish capital in 1940 with over 400,000 Jews living in an area of 1.3 Square miles. The Ghetto was split into two areas, the small area for the rich jews, and the large area for the poor and middle-classed Jews. 300,000 died in the Ghetto, 100,000 died due to the spread of disease and random killings, while the others died from starvation and exhaustion due to work. At the end of 1942, an Uprising took place in the Ghetto but of course failed and the Nazis managed to re-control it.
Auschwitz : was one of the largest concentration camps that had three main camps and another 45 sub-camps. The camp was based on the thoughts of Himmler concerning the final solution. The camp had Jews, Gypsies, Russians, and others. The camp fell in 1945 by the hands of the Soviets.
The Nazi method of extermination wasn’t random but according to very scientific studies. They only killed what they described as useless consumers like babies, pregnant women, the sick, and the elders. The ones who were healthy were taken care of and left for work, but after time, most of them died from starvation and exhaustion. Medical examinations took place which was inhumane and cannot be described, and after the War, the US had the full access to all of it’s results which of course considered to be unethical.
End of Road
At the final days of the Reich, Hitler was unaware of the defeat he’s having, moving units and armies on maps that did not exist on the battleground. The rumors that were spread by his propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels that claimed that the Americans are gonna stand with the Germans against the Soviets didn’t work and the soldiers were sure that the war was lost. When Hitler finally realized the defeat, he committed suicide along with his mistress Eva Braun on April the 30th, 1945. It marked the end of Nazism. After his suicide, there were series of another suicides committed by his army generals and soldiers. Nazism fell, along with Germany itself.
When the war ended, and the third Reich fell, it wasn’t the end of imperialism for it took place from Europe to the States in the shape of an American invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan in the name of War on terror. The World did not simply live in peace, and a third war might just be on the edge of the World with the rising tension between US, Iran, Israel, Russia, Europe, and China. If there’s a future war, the battleground will take place in the Middle East instead of Europe, which tells us all that what man learned from history, that man never learns from history as Hegel said. I finished my posts about War, or to be more specific, Wars ideology, whether they were religious as in the Crusades or taking the form of Nationalistic one as in WWI and WWII. Hope you liked my analysis, and I welcome any corrections or positive criticism.
The First World War left Europe in ruins due to blind nationalism that took over its countries. It left vulnerable societies and regimes full of hatred. Empires that lasted for hundreds of years finally fell and new orders just took place. Communism was rising in Russia with its oppressive regime, spreading out atheism among its leaders, and by their turn oppressing any institution under the Soviet border that had/have a history of any religious ideology. Fascism was rising in Italy on the hands of Benito Mussolini who believed in the Fascist negations of anti-liberalism, anti-communism, and anti-conservatism. Nazism was rising in Germany when Hitler legitimately reached to power along with his Nazi party in a hundred percent democratic elections, influencing the masses through his charismatic nationalist speeches and reminding them of the glory days of the Germanic race. Western democracies, victorious but exhausted from the First World War had to face this rising threat on the European lands from regimes that may look like adopting awkward ideologies but in fact, they only interpreted some of it in a professional way that aimed to turn men to Gods and turn Earth to heaven but merely turned men to hunters and Earth to a vast jungle.
I intend to discuss each one of these ideologies in a separate post to comprehend the historical issue that we’re about to discuss, which’s the Second World War, a War that left more than 50 million dead and indeed considered to be the deadliest War in our history.
Communism begins where atheism begins, but atheism is at the outset still far from being communism; indeed it is for the most part an abstraction – Karl Marx
You know they are fooling us, there’s no God – Joseph Stalin
Indeed the Bolshevik revolution brought everything new to Russia; a new economical order and indeed a new ideology.
The USSR was hostile to all forms of religion because it was “the opiate of the masses” according to Karl Marx. The state was committed to the destruction of any religious doctrine although Christians and Muslims had a degree of religious freedom right after the revolution, but later the Soviet Union destroyed Churches and Mosques, executed religious leaders and enforced atheistic education in all schools claiming that it’s the time of the true atheistic science.
Despite the un-ending efforts of extracting religion out of the people, the Soviet goals failed and the majority of the Soviet population kept on their religious beliefs. The Communist party held many tactics to end the influence of religion. The majority of these tactics were oppressive and inhumane. Orthodox Christians were sent to labor camps, mental hospitals and prison camps. They subjected the Christian prisoners to mind control operations and psychological punishments in order to force them give up their religious beliefs. Many others were executed and imprisoned.
Protestant Christians were held in mental hospitals while being tortured, executed and even some were deprived of their parental rights. There were 3 anti-religious campaigns before the Second World War, Anti-Religious campaign 1917-1921, Anti-Religious campaign 1921-1928, and Anti-Religious campaign 1928-1941.
The first campaign aimed to separate between the Church and the State in every mean and to enforce atheistic doctrines to schools and forbid any religious teachings.
In the second campaign, the authority passed a resolution called for wide-scale organization, and cooperation in the task of anti-religious agitation and propaganda among the broad masses of the workers, using the mass media, films, books, lectures, and other devices. The Church leaders replied and demanded freedom of religion under the constitution. The Communists replied with massive anger, executing 28 bishops and 6,775 priests, and despite the mass protests in support of the Church, its leaders had to submit due to oppression. In 1922, The Soviets built their very first concentration camp, the Solovki Camp which was established and built in the Solovki Islands in the White Sea. 8 metropolitans, 20 archbishops, and 47 bishops of the Orthodox Church were found dead along with tens of thousands of the laity. Most of them were executed by fire.
In the Third campaign, the Orthodox Christian Church and members suffered badly in the 1930s. The number of the Orthodox Christian Churches in the Russian republic fell from 29,584 to less than 500. During the purges of 1937 and 1938, the Church records show that 168,300 Russian Orthodox clergy were arrested, over 100,000 were shot. But campaign started to slow down and took a more moderate road due to the approach of World War II and it eventually ended with the starts of the War.
As for the Muslims, they suffered mass killing under the Tsars were the Eastern Orthodox Church was the official religion. Muslims after the revolution had a degree of religious freedom and were even held powerful positions in new Communist Russia and on the 24th of November 1917, Lenin declared: Muslims of Russia….all you whose mosques and prayer houses have been destroyed, whose beliefs and customs have been trampled upon by the Tsars and oppressors of Russia. Your beliefs and practices, your national and cultural institutions are forever free and inviolate. Know that your rights, like all those of the people of Russia, are under the mighty protection of the revolution.
When Stalin came to rule, he shut down many mosques, turned them all to warehouses. Religious leaders were persecuted and executed, religious schools were closed, the governments forced women to take off their hijab (claiming that it’s a kind of oppression) but this backfired and the veil even became more popular among the workers, whereas prior to this was mostly used by the middle wealthier class.
During Stalin’s regime, Crimean Tatar Muslims were victims of mass deportations that began on May the 17th, 1944. 193,865 Crimean Tatars were deported. From May to November, 10,105 Crimean Tatars died of starvation in Uzbekistan, nearly 30,000 died in exile.
This was a very briefed look at the conditions of religious institutions under the Soviet regime right after the revolution till the beginning of the Second World War.
In the first part of this subject, the light was shed on the time of the Crusade invasion on the Muslim world, mentioning some details about the wars casualties and its motives, while also mentioning the humane side of this Crusade and its effect on the “Simple common people”. The Crusades were indeed a religious war based on the result of a logical reason for a shallow interpretation of this time, but with “briefed” analysis, we may have been able to at least show that the Crusades in its essence were an imperialistic movement driven by the forces of the “desperate” need of economical gains and wealthy treasures that happened to be located in the Islamic world at the time. We mentioned the role of the Feudalists in waging this war alongside the Popes. We are about to hit a new stage of this analysis and I decided that I better discuss the “Inquisitions” and especially “The Spanish Inquisitions” in a separate part that represents one of the most violent forms of religious intolerance before moving on to the historical origins of WWI and WWII, analyzing the ideologies behind them and also shedding the light on the ideologies that was embraced by its leaders especially the most controversial 3 of them ( Adolf Hitler – Benito Mussolini – Joseph Stalin ). I also decided to add an important part that will need another separate post which will shed the light on the unethical Scientific Violations that was committed in the name of Science during Wars ( WWI – WWII ) and also the ones that took place in the 60s, 70s, 80s and 90s in the United States and different parts of the world. Justice must be served, and show the red lines that both Religion and Science crossed for selfish, inhumane reasons that can be put under the famous expression of the end justifies the means.
The Muslim conquering of Iberian Peninsula
The Umayyad rule was able to conquer the Iberian Peninsula between the years of 711 and 714 AD under the military North African rule of Tariq Ibn Zyad and Moussa Ibn Nossair. The reasons behind the Muslim conquering of the Iberian Peninsula was always pictured as a mean of increasing the Islamic influence to reach Europe, but there’s another side of the story though, and it’s also merely political. Spain at the time was being ruled by the Goths and it suffered a political, economical and social weakness that made it easy for any strong state to conquer it from the North, East or South. Spain was divided into 5 classes, First class was The Nobles ( Spanish king wasn’t appointed through a hereditary rule but rather by voting among the Nobles which resulted in conflicts and a series of waged conspiracies against each other for the sake of rule ). Second class was The Clergymen ( They shared the voting with the Nobles for the future Kings, and also owned private properties that was tax-free). The third class was The Middle class ( The Middle class represented the people who were socially and economically exhausted due to the taxes that were enforced by the Nobles). The fourth class was The Low class (it consisted of slaves, and they represented the majority during the last rules of the Goths, most of them worked in the lands of the Nobles in agriculture). The fifth class was The Jews (They were responsible for the financial transactions of the State, but they were also hated because of their religion. Jews were forced not to marry from each other “A Jewish man marries a Catholic woman and a Jewish woman marries a Catholic man”).
We have two stories concerning the reason of the Muslim conquer of the Iberian Peninsula; we will inform you of the Islamic source first then the Spanish one.
The Islamic source tells us that Count Julian “The Governor of Ceuta” sent his beautiful daughter Florenda to the royal court in Toledo to receive the proper education. This is when Rodrigo the Goth King saw her and immediately fell in love with her but she didn’t have the same feelings for him so he assaulted her. The girl wrote a letter to her father complaining about the assault that happened to her, so Julian went to the court, took his daughter and went back to Ceuta. Julian wanted revenge and noticed that the new young rising force was the Islamic one that set its foundations in Makkah, Madinah and Damascus (The headquarters of the Umayyad Caliphate). He contacted Moussa Ibn Nossair and convinced him to conquer Spain, knowing that Rodrigo will not have a slight chance against the Muslims. Moussa Ibn Nossair agreed on Julian’s offer after asking the permission from the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus. Moussa appointed Tariq Ibn Zyad to this mission and succeeded in his duty with the help of Julian’s forces.
The Spanish source has a different story from the Islamic one, but the differences aren’t that big. It says that Rodrigo claimed the throne by force from Akhila, the legitimate King of Spain. Akhila went to Julian his friend and ally and both agreed on asking the help of the Muslim foreign forces to help them defeat Rodrigo under the condition of paying an annual tribute to the Muslims.
The common story between the two different sources show that the true reasons behind the Muslims conquering of Spain were merely political that manifested itself through the conspiring plans between the Nobles and each other for the sake of rule. The Muslims later when they arrived to the new land saw that extreme bad conditions of its people and felt that its might be a new chance for them to set the foundations of their rule in Europe, and of course such plan made them exclude the conspiring parties (Rodrigo VS Julian & Akhila). The Muslims named the Iberian Peninsula “Al-Andalus”.
Muslims ruled the Peninsula for 800 years that was full of Scientific and Religious advancements but also constant wars with the Franks in Southern France and Northern Spain and constant 400 years of wars with the two Northern Kingdoms of Castile & Aragon. These wars as we know were called “The Reconquista”. The Reconquista was able to end the Muslims existence in the Iberian Peninsula after the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in 1492 AD.
The fall of Granada
The Kingdom of Granada remained under the Muslim rule for 200 years; it was strong and well defended. The last Kings of Granada was Abu Abdallah Muhammad XII and he was a weak leader although his mother had a big role in defending Granada after her husband’s death. The violations of the Castile and Aragon’s armies in the fallen cities before Granada like Valencia, Cordoba, Madrid, Valladolid, Toledo, Seville, Zaragoza and others were vital. They enslaved all the Muslims in these cities especially in the city of Valencia that had the biggest number of Moorish existence in Andalusia. The fall of Granada was shocking to its people because it fell without a single bloodshed, without a war, without any kind of resistance. Ferdinand and Isabella armies surrounded Granada, the King Abu Abdallah Muhammad had a meeting with his chancellors and discussed the issue of this surrounding and all agreed on the surrender, only one person who disagreed to this surrender, he was Moussa Abo Al Ghaws and he told them about a prediction that was proven right after the fall of Granada, he told them “do not think that if you surrendered to them, they will treat you in good manners, for they will enslave you, your wives and your children and repeat the same actions they did in the fallen cities”. The negotiations between Abu Abdallah and Ferdinand lasted for several weeks and the treaty was signed by both Kings in the 25th of November, 1491 AD. The treaty had 56 terms, which guaranteed that Abu Abdallah Muhammad surrenders Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella in maximum 60 days. The treaty also stated that after the fall, Muslims can freely keep on their religion, keep their money, their houses, their women and children, and Mosques remain safe from any violation and not be forced on the conversion from a Mosque to a Church or Cathedral. Also the treaty had terms that gave the rights to Muslims to stay in Al-Beazin neighborhood with forbidden violations of Christians to their own personal private lives, and no Christian is allowed to enter any Mosque without the permission of the Muslims. The treaty’s terms are very fair but the problem will come later in the application.
One week after the treaty, Abu Abdallah Muhammad surrenders the city of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella. Another secret treaty took place that wasn’t declared on the public, stated that Abu Abdallah must sell his properties to Ferdinand and Isabella for about 121,000 piece of Gold and later heads to Morocco. When Abu Abdallah agreed on the terms and started heading to Morocco he was crying and when his mother saw him she told him “Weep like women for a throne you haven’t kept like Men”.
Isabella’s goals weren’t only the retaining of Granada but even the following of Muslims in Morocco, but later knew that it was impossible due to the rising of the Ottoman Empire in the East that launched attacks on the Spanish coasts that were described by the Spanish as “Sea Piracy”.
In 1502 AD, the treaty was violated, when the Queen stated that Muslims only have 3 choices, the Muslim converts to Christianity or leaves his land or, if he refused the first 2 terms, he will be put on trial, tortured and constantly be watched by the Inquisitors.
For the Muslims who were forced to leave Granada, they were distributed among the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon in order to disconnect them from other Muslims. It was a cultural isolation between the Muslim inhabitants.
When Granada fell, an uprising happened in Al-Beazin neighborhood because of the people’s rage, the youths were throwing the Castilian armies by stones and negotiations took place between those rebels and Ferdinand and of course he was able to end this uprising which forced lots of Muslims to sell their properties, leave their homes and head to Morocco and Tunisia right after they converted all of the Mosques to Churches.
Granada has the most beautiful remains of the Islamic existence in Spain that manifests itself through Alhambra palace. Also Cordoba had the biggest Mosque in Spain which was named the Mezquita and of course was converted to a Church and till this day, the Muslims in Spain have no right in praying in Cordoba’s mosque.
When Granada fell, the Muslims in Spain were divided into 2 parts, some who sold their properties and fled to Morocco and Tunisia, and some who decided to stay and convert to Christianity (or pretend to be Christian). In 1501 AD the forced Christianization was compulsory on the Muslims who decided to stay. The ones who decided to stay where called “The Moors”. The Pope had a hand in these actions that was adopted by Ferdinand and Isabella, considering that Muslims are infidels and should be baptized by force. The public baths were in the lifestyle culture of the Arab-Muslim world, and they were shut down after the fall of Granada. The priest Hernando de Talavera was responsible for the mission that was appointed to him by Isabella which was the Christianization of the Muslims, but he was tolerant and never tried to force Christianity on any Muslim, so later they isolated him and appointed Cardinal Cisneros who was a fanatic and had a different way to deal with Muslims than Talavera’s peaceful tolerant way. Cardinal Cisneros was hostile not towards Muslims but Islam mainly, he burned all of Koran books, he forbid the speaking of Arabic language, he forced the Moors in dressing the Castilian clothes, forced the Muslims scholars to convert to Christianity, and forced the Moorish women to expose their head and faces in public. Every Muslim who did not embrace Christianity, was accused of heresy and burned alive, others were enslaved.
Muslims resisted, but the resistance in its essence does not mean the resistance by force. There were lots of shapes of resistance that Sharia law allowed it for them under the rule of “If you can’t declare your Islam, hide it in your heart”. So lots of them pretended to be Christians but they were forced to leave their homes open 24/7 for constant inspection by the Inquisitors.
The Inquisitions that were created by the Catholic Church wasn’t only located in Spain, but also in Italy, Germany and France to search in the hearts of the people’s faith. They hunted thinkers, men of Science, and everybody who opposed the Church. It burned them and enslaved them. The first inquisition was created in 1242 AD in Aragon and in 1459 AD, Castile’s King ordered the inquisitors to search in his kingdom for any person who embraces a different ideology or faith that is different from the Catholic Church.
Inquisitions lasted till the 19th century, the Moors in Andalusia remained Muslims in secret, and any person who was caught in the act till the 19th century, was executed or burned.
The Inquisition works this way. They address the accused and ask him to come to court, the Priests usually condemn him, and the accused gets jailed while not knowing what the next step they’re going to do to him. They confront him of the accusations, If he didn’t admit, he gets tortured in a savage ways the person can never imagine. He can still though ask for forgiveness from the Pope through paying lots of money to the Church (That if he actually owns any money). The Inquisitions did not differ between Men and Women; in torture, all were equal.
After the fall of Granada in 1492 AD, the first who were exposed to this extreme torture of the Inquisitions were the Jews. They were chased all around Spain which forced the Jews to leave Spain and head to Morocco, Tunisia or even to the heart of the Ottoman Empire as a way to be protected by a new major Muslim force. Moors weren’t allowed to speak in Arabic, dress like an Arab or practice any sort of culture that was related to any Arabic-Islamic source, so later the Moors among their societies, addressed each other in Arabic through writing it in Latin alphabet.
Cardinal Cisneros collected the entire Arab-Muslim books in the field of Bab-Al Ramla and burned them in the middle of a vast celebration. He ordered the burning of Koran, and hadeeth books and only kept few historical and medical ones. The controversy surrounding the number of books that were burned is big, some say the folders and the books were 5,000 and some say it was more. The Moors were forced to learn the Castilian language in 3 years and if they failed to learn, they either gets tortured or enslaved. Few revolutions and uprisings took place in Granada that almost succeeded except for the dividing of the rebels which of course caused the uprisings to fail.
With Philip III being on the throne of Spain, one of the cruelest ethnic genocides was in the making, which was the total and final expulsion of the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula.
The Moorish expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula
The spots that contained the largest number of Moors in Spain were four; the biggest of them was in Valencia, then Aragon, then Catalonia and finally Castile. Castile’s population was 6,000,000 with only 100,000 Moor, but in Valencia, they were 100,000 of a 300,000 total population, that’s why the forced expulsion of Moors was first based in Valencia. The Moors of Valencia inhabited the agricultural areas due to their skills and talent in agriculture. The authorities led the Moors to the nearest ports that should transfer them to other parts of the world with 10 ships under their service. Lots of Moors died through these trips cause of the hard work they were forced to do on the ships that were supposed to reach them to Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia or even Istanbul. 1609 AD was the first forced expulsion of the Moors under the orders of Philip III who unlike his father, showed a deep hostility towards the Moor, for his father Philip II always preferred to dissolve the Moors in the new Spanish society. The attempts to Christianize the Moors of Valencia and Castile partially failed because the Inquisitors always found out that the Moors were practicing Islam in secret, therefore a compulsory expulsion was the final solution of the Moorish issue, The year 1614 AD was the last of the Moors expulsion of the Iberian Peninsula. Limpieza de sangre “Cleanup of blood” was one more motive of the compulsory expulsion of the Moors from Spain. Around 300,000 Moors were forced to be expelled from Spain, but it’s only approximate because lots adapted well to the new Spanish society and were able to hide their religious practicing. A letter from Philip III to the governor of Valencia justified this sudden but also (historically expected) expulsion of the Moors that said that Spain failed in Christianizing the Moors, with also fears that the Moors might be conspiring with the Ottoman Empire in North Africa against the Spanish monarchy. After the expulsion of the Moors, Spain was drowned in great economical crises especially in Valencia and Aragon in the fields of agriculture.
The Moors who decided to leave or who were expelled by force, weren’t able to take their young children with them, because the Church put its hand on these children (especially who were under the age of 5) in order to baptize and Christianize them, if the attempts failed, they simply sell them in the slave market. Lots of Moorish stories spread around North Africa that tells the story of Moorish children with scars due to the constant beating by the Church or the Nobles. Death tolls of the Spanish inquisitions reached 135,000 under the supervision of Tomas de Torquemada who was a prominent leader of the Spanish inquisition in between the years from 1420 AD to 1498 AD. 125,000 died in prisons because of bad conditions and 10,000 were executed.
The compulsory expulsion of the Moors from Spain is the first great ethnic eradication that happened on a large scale in history.
The Spanish Inquisitions indeed were a black mark on the face of Spain and Europe during the medieval that manifested itself through the intolerance of clergymen, Kings and Queens of Spain. Not only the Spanish Inquisition but also the famous ordeal of Galileo with the Roman inquisition concerning his scientific exploration that offered a new understanding in the world of cosmology back then that defied the power of the Catholic Church. Galileo as we know said that the Earth is not the center of the Universe and the Sun doesn’t revolve around it, it’s the other way around. He had to defy the Church but at the end he was imprisoned and was forced to change his scientific theory to the old accepted faith by the Church that said that the Earth is the center of the Universe and the sun revolved around it. Although Galileo wasn’t the first who came up with this fact, hundreds of years before him, the well known Greek philosopher and mathematician Hypatia excluded the idea of the Sun revolving around the Earth and suggested that the Earth might be the one that actually revolves around the Sun. Also other Muslim scientists had their opinion about the Earth’s rotation around the Sun like Abo Saied Alsdze who assumed that the Earth maybe rotating around itself and around the Sun, and his theory was approved by the famous Muslim scientist Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the year 1031 AD.
The next posts will be about WWI and WWII that’s considered to be the worst two wars in history that cost the lives of millions. Will also in a separate post discuss and talk about the ethical violations that happened in the name of knowledge and science.
The World has achieved brilliance without wisdom, power without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants. We know more about war that we know about peace, more about killing that we know about living. – Omar Bradley.
To kill a man is not to defend a doctrine, but to kill a man. – Michael Servetus.
Only the dead have seen the end of war. – Plato.
Countless wars been waged across history for various reasons, for political influence, for religious domination and others. But is there a real main reason that caused the eruption of war which follows set of certain rules that can be applied on every conflict?, the answers will vary and the most famous ones of them usually goes to saying that “Religions are responsible for every war ever happened in history”, while others would suggest that “Religion is a tool for war like any other ideological or political doctrine”. The truth gets lost in the ruins of theories reflecting the pointing finger strategy that everybody does according to their adaption of the ideology that fits them well in their private and social life, whether these ideologies are religious (Jewish – Christian – Islamic – Buddhist – Pagan – etc.) or nihilistic, agnostic, atheistic that usually blame religions for wars especially at the times of the Crusades in the 11th and the 12thcentury, and the Inquisitions from the 15th century to the 17th, and those two main ideological conflicts and wars represent the peak of the religious conflict between the East and West (Muslims vs. Christians) or between West and west (Catholics vs. Protestants) or East and East (Sunnis vs. Shiites). Indeed lots of wars took place in the name of religion and God, blood been spilled, and thousands of soldiers been killed if not close to millions. But, was really religion the hidden force behind those wars, or was it the mere materialistic purposes of leaders who found out that using religion as a tool of control over the helpless and the ignorant through twisting religious doctrines and holy books by men of religion to serve their political purposes of materialistic gains as the best current way to assemble the largest number of soldiers who are willing to defend their faith till the last drop of their blood?. What about the two major wars of history (WWI – WWII) that literally cost the lives of millions and millions (The total number of military and civilian casualties in WWI, were over 35 million. There were over 15 million deaths and 20 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history. WWII was the deadliest military conflict in history, over 60 Million people were killed, which was over 2.5% of the world’s population, The USSR alone lost over the 20 Million soldiers and civilian in this war.).
Was those 2 major wars a religious conflict? Or a due to the indoctrination of other ideologies that even may oppose religious morality and teachings in its basics?. The answer lies in fair and biased analysis of wars history (especially the major conflicts) without the extreme pointing finger policy of clashed ideological participants and free-thinkers.
There is few evidences show that the policy of the crusades princes, when they rushed with their imperialistic attempts, was only aiming for pure worldly gains. – John Lamont.
The crusades were the first experience of western imperialism that was adapted by western nations outside their boundaries to quest for a large-scale economical gain. – Thompson.
The Arabian Empire was heading towards its doom at this time because of the Turkish influence inside the Muslims armies. Each and every ruler tried to grab independence for the state he ruled, through battling with opponents around the Empire. Seljuk Turks were rising in Asia and their influences reached Sham and were also considered a big threat to Christian Europe, they were a powerful Sunni force. In Egypt, the Fatimids were ruling with a strong force, and they represented a powerful Shiite force that considered the Sunni Seljuk Turks as a great threat to the future of Shiite existence in Egypt. However, the capitals of the Islamic empire still were the dominating capitals of the world especially in Science. Capitals like Baghdad, Cordoba, Seville and Cairo were the main source of the world’s sciences at the time. But with the problems that started shaking the Arab world, the Byzantine Empire rose once more with spreading the influence of Orthodox Christianity and Greek language among western and eastern nations with Constantinople being the biggest main market in the world. At the mean time in Europe (that was slowly developing), the nations started wrapping around their masters and their castles, to save them from the barbarian Northern tribes raids on their countries, this sort of policy made Feudalism stronger and gave its owners a more powerful influence that allowed them to enslave farmers and workers. Those Feudalists had the real power while Kings were only rulers by name. Rome and Constantinople were ruling Europe, the first aimed to unite Europe under the Catholic Church while the second had its own power through art, and its control of the trade in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Byzantine Empire wanted to make sure that this kind of trade remained in its power because it guarantees its superiority and greatness. The Sea trade between the Eastern Muslim Empire and the Byzantine Empire was very big and large scaled through the ports of Venice. The European societies in the west were deadly scared of the Norman tribes in the North; some of these tribes joined the forces of the Frankish armies whom by their turn joined Castile’s re-conquests wars with Cordoba’s king in Andalusia while other Norman tribes joined the Arab forces when Muslims asked them for help during their wars with Castile and Aragon.
So Arabs and Byzantines remained the masters of knowledge in the world at the time, but the Turks wanted to prove themselves so they started invading Anatolia, capturing Armenia and even capturing the Byzantine Emperor himself in 1071 AD. The few losing battles of the Byzantine Empire led to the rise of the Catholic Pope’s influence in Europe. The European cities started to call for kicking out the Turks from Eastern Europe, and the Turks were Muslims therefore, the idea of war on Islam spread around Europe. The Turks on many times assaulted the Christian pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem, but those Christian pilgrims exaggerated these assaults and started describing to the people of Europe that Muslims are barbarians, cannibals, wolves and enemies of the Christ but the English historian Edward Gibbon writes about these claims and says “Those accusations were only the results of ignorance and racism, and these are portraits that’s being repulsed by Koran and being denied by the history of Arab conquerors with their tolerance with Christianity in social life, legislations and laws.”. There were assaults on some Christian pilgrims but they indeed weren’t systematic and can only be described as individual acts. These wars were described as Crusades because the soldiers used to paint the cross on their shields, and armors. But also not every person who had a cross painting on his armor was being led to war for spiritual goals, some of princes and Kings only went to war for glory and conquest more lands that can lift their own flags on and increase their economical power from West to East. Lots of criminals decided to join the marching European armies and paint the cross on their armors hoping for redemption, the reason of this act can be interpreted through understanding the poverty and the bad economical condition of western Europe that forced the people to be drowned in ignorance and poverty, they saw that the war in the East might form a new hope for them.
During the preparations of the Crusades, the Fatimids got into war with the Sunni Seljuk Turks and were able to claim Jerusalem in 1097 AD after one month of Antioch’s fall in the hands of the crusaders, the Fatimids offered an ally with the crusaders in order to back them up against the Seljuk Turks, but the crusaders always aimed at Jerusalem (As you can notice there were possible Muslim-Christian allies against other Muslim forces, and later we’ll show a Muslim-Christian ally against Christian forces as well, after all the Crusades may be the biggest religious war in history but in its details it was full of personal economical materialistic gains). “The weird thing that needs some thinking that it took Muslims sometime to realize the real goals of the Crusades, especially when the Fatimids in Egypt thought of a possible alliance with the new invading forces to back them up against the Sunni Seljuk Turks in Sham and the Sunni Abbasids in Baghdad, but the Fatimids were wrong and the Crusaders didn’t waste the chance of conquering Jerusalem and defeating the Fatimid forces there” says Dr. Saied Ashour. Jerusalem fell in the hands of the crusaders in 1099 AD, they committed horrible crimes especially against the Christians of Palestine; They kicked them out of their homes and churches and took over their monasteries. The Crusades improved the economical and social conditions of the western European countries, literature started to flourish, and navigation started to spread more around Venice and Genoa that eventually tied its relations more with the ports of Syria and Palestine. With this economical improvement, an intellectual renaissance took place and people started to read about the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle that were of course translated by the Muslim philosopherIbn Rushd. The Umayyad rule in Andalusia (Spain) wasn’t weakened, for Arabic remained the language of science and cities like Toledo hosted many students coming from Western Europe in hunger for science and philosophy.
The Byzantine Empire started to fall, and the Western countries that participated in the Crusades started to economically and intellectually flourish, and with the defeat of the Seljuk Turks in Sham and the conquest of Jerusalem by the crusaders, the road to the rest of the Arabian lands became widely opened for the crusades.
The Crusades ruled these lands for many years, and after sometime, appeared a leader who’s considered to be the most controversial leader at the time. Saladin who grew up at the times of the European domination of Sham, we won’t discuss his biography for it needs a whole book for it, but we’ll only shed the light on some of his actions. The very first thing Saladin did was capturing Egypt from the Fatimids after deadly battles between his armies and allied Fatimids-Crusader forces in Egypt. He was able to end the Shiite rule in Egypt and declared it to be a Sunni state and then later he headed towards the Sham lands that were controlled by the Muslims and declared them to be a Sunni states as well, the Muslim forces for the first time since the Crusades, were partially united for one purpose (to retain the raped land from the invading Crusades). Saladin after a series of battles and wars with the Crusaders was able to surround Jerusalem and refused to attack it for it has a special place for him in his heart. The debate inside the city of Jerusalem was at the peak of its time for the Orthodox Christians preferred the rule of Muslims than the rule of invading Catholics. When the crusade forces inside the city of Jerusalem realized that this is a losing battle, they decided to surrender under the condition of their protection by Saladin’s forces. Saladin retained Jerusalem in 1187 AD, the stories concerning his justice towards the Christian pilgrims and soldiers after their surrender is very well known and being praised by Western historians more than Arabian ones. But his victories didn’t last that long for the 3rd Crusade was launched from Europe towards the city of Acre. Bloody battles took place between Saladin’s forces and the new crusade invasions for this city which lasted 2 years, and eventually fell in the hands of the Crusades and the retreat of Saladin’s to Jerusalem knowing that this is the number one wanted city by the crusaders. From the funny situations that we should talk about is the relationship between the European soldiers and the Muslim ones. During the war lots of soldiers from the both sides used to stop battling and talk with each other and sometimes even celebrate and dance if their leaders decided the battle to be stopped. Another incident that we should stop at, that during the battles of Acre, a famine took place at the camps of the crusaders, the normal thing is to leave them die because the supplies that are being sent from Europe will take a long time to reach them, but most of the Muslim traders used to sell them food and water for the highest prices, and of course without these forms of profitable trades, the Crusaders could’ve died during the surrounding of Acre.
Battles between both Saladin and Richard took a long time, varied between a victory for this and a victory for that, but later Richard with his smartness realized that the process of re-capturing Jerusalem again from Saladin is an impossible task and he already lost thousands of soldiers during battles on coastal cities and he’d probably need a doubled aid and troops from Europe just to have a chance to enforce a proper attack on the well protected city of Jerusalem. Both knew that the only way would be the negotiations where they both sent each other different gifts and showed respect.
“Friendly and trade relations that existed between Muslims and Christians before the Crusades, did not entirely vanish after the Crusades attempt to control Sham, and didn’t end after the Crusades control over these lands”. – J.A. Hammerton.
“It wasn’t strange when a Christian leader was backed by Muslims against other Christian leaders as much as there was a Christian backing for a Muslim leader against other Muslim leaders”. – Philip Khuri Hitti.
At the end of the year 1203 AD, a Crusade fleet appeared in front of the Byzantine beaches and managed to invade Constantinople. This Crusade was different for it was a Christian crusade against another Christian Empire and later the new invaders created the rule of Feudalism in Constantinople. Some historians argue that the Crusades originally even before its attack on the Muslim lands, aimed for the fall of Constantinople and uniting it with the Catholic Church.
In the 13th century, the battle between the Muslims and the Crusaders in the East was erupting, and the battles between the Moors and Spaniards were determining the future fate of flourished Muslim Spain. But at the same time a different kind of battle or conflict started between the Papal power and the Imperial one. The hero of this battle was the Emperor Frederic II. He was the son of a German father and a half Italian mother; he was raised in Sicily amidst the Arabian culture and the Western one that was instructed by the Normans. He spoke 6 languages, Arabic was one of them, he loved literature and science, and these combinations made of him a much tolerant Emperor, and more liberal than others, and we can say that the Italian renaissance started at the time of Frederic II with his passion of science. He always preferred the Arab life style and was a personal friend with the Muslim Geographical Idrisi.
Arabic language at his time was among the languages that were officially recognized, with Muslims and Christians living together in harmony. He refused to participate in the Crusades against the East or the attack on Kairouan.
A new rising power and invasion struck both the Muslims and the Crusaders. It was the Mongols. A fearsome power that committed one of the worst blood bathes in history in the Abbasid capital city of Baghdad. Mongols claimed to be Catholics, coming to help the Crusaders but the Crusaders themselves refused to help or aid the Mongols and after some time the Muslim Memluk Egyptian forces were able to end the existence of the Mongol attacks in Sham and the Muslim Empire. The last of wars took place between the Memluks and the Crusaders, and ended with the full retreat of the Crusaders from Sham and occupied territories in the East. And in 1303 AD, Muslims retained the island of Arwad which ended the very last existence of Crusaders.
Friendly relations at the time of the Crusades
Historians say that the casualties of the Crusades from the both sides is about 5 million, which’s a very big number compared to the kind of population back then. “Those who were responsible for the Crusades realized that such wars did not result in an effective change compared to the large number of soldiers and materials they used. Lots of Crusaders retreated back to their countries knowing that such wars that were enforced for the sake of Eastern Christians, were useless especially that the Christian pilgrims had the right of pilgrimage in Jerusalem under the Muslim rule of Sham” – J. A. Hammerton – History of the World.
Lots of them felt that what they’re doing wasn’t instructed by The Messiah, the Prophet of love and peace, and that the spreading of their faith is by Persuasion and not war. Majority of crusaders were freed due to their living amidst the Muslims. No doubt that lot of Muslims and Christians knew that such wars in reality weren’t anything but wars for the sake of a better economical and political influence, and battles that are being fed by personal gains and greed. Crusades were described as religious wars in order to attract the largest possible number of soldiers and win the masses sentiments through the false indoctrination of religion scriptures by Popes and Feudalists. Some of Christian princes and leaders allied with Muslims and fought under their banner while also lots Muslims Turkish mercenaries fought with the Crusaders against the Muslim armies, while there were Armenian mercenaries who sided with Muslims against Christians. That’s how we see that Muslims and Christians themselves didn’t look at these wars as a mere religious ones, but also a war of economical influence.
It is strange how the Crusades ended with the opposite of what it once called which was the alliance of the Catholics with the Byzantines against the Muslims while it ended with the Crusade invasion of Constantinople in 1204 AD, leaving it in the year of 1261 after they divided the Empire and made it an easy target later for the Ottoman Empire that had later its role in history.
The Crusaders used to treat their Muslim employees in a good manner the same way Christians were treated in a good manner especially under the rule of Saladin. They allowed Arabs to own their own lands and didn’t assault on the villages Sheikhs. Unlike Jews, Muslims under the Crusades had the right of owning a private property. Muslims in Crusade occupied territories had their religious freedom as long as they stay in peace and work for their agriculture and manufacture. And those were one of the main things that helped the relations to be tied with both Muslims and Christians at the time. During peace, both soldiers from the 2 sides used to communicate and relate, forgetting the blood and hate of war “In yesterday’s wars you find the soldiers stabbing by sword and spears, throwing bows and suddenly in between a day and a night, the enemies of yesterday become the friends of today” – Grousset : Hist. des Croisades, III.
Muslims themselves used to participate in Christian weddings that even some political figures denounced this act but couldn’t stop it. The relations were tied more than the war leaders ever imagined. The common people had their own lives, treating their Christian visitors in good manners, both not caring about who wins whether the Crusades or the Muslims, what mattered was the trade and the friendship. In Jerusalem, the Christian used to pray and next to him by few yards the Muslims used to have their turn of prayers. In a way, the Crusades had its beautiful side that manifested through the traditions of the common people and the combination of both Western culture and Eastern one. A Crusade Prince during the wars once said “The fight between Muslims and Franks is a fraternal suicide”. Yes, the most thing I care about is the friendly relationships between Muslims and Christians during the times of the worst so-called (Religious wars) in history……The Second part will analyze and discuss the reasons of both WWI and WWII, summing their casualties and investigating the ideologies that those 2 wars had embraced. Was it Religious?….And will also shed the light on the Inquisitions that are indeed considered to be merely religious.
- Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah the Prophet of Islam was born in the Arabian peninsula in the 26th of April, 570 AD. And then Islam appeared amongst the Arabian tribes in 610 AD at the time where those tribes were separated from the great civilized empires around them like the Persian Empire and the Roman one. And in 632 AD, the Prophet Muhammad died and after his death by only 100 years, the Muslim armies were standing at the gates of Paris in the famous battle of Tours or (Poitiers) that took place in 732 AD. The appearance of Islam in the Arab world on the hands of Muhammad and his message created a vast powerful empire that the Arabs or the empires around them never knew. Syria was conquered in 634 AD, Damascus was conquered in 635 AD, India and Egypt were conquered in 641 AD, Cartagena was conquered in 647 AD, Samarkand (Uzbekistan) was conquered in 676 AD, Andalusia (Spain & Portugal) was conquered in 710 AD, and then the Muslim armies stopped in France in 720 AD. The Muslim preachers reached China delivering the Muslim Caliphate’s message to “Taichung” who by his turn allowed the preachers to spread their message amongst the Chinese people. The Muslim Empire ruled from China and India from the east passing by the Middle east and reaching to Andalusia and Southern France in the west. This rule lasted for over the 1000 year. Islam started to back down and fall in Andalusia after a 700 year of rule, retreating under the inhumane strikes by the inquisitions, leaving behind the best civilization Spain ever knew, and the best civilization medieval Europe ever looked at. It was a civilization that shone at the time where historians described this era as the dark ages. But again this civilization finds its way to Europe through the east this time under the Ottoman rule that conquered Constantinople on the hands of Mehmet II or Mehmet the conqueror at the year 1453 AD when he was only 21 years old. And then again the Ottomans surrounded Vienna for the last time in 1682 AD (329 years ago), while the Muslim rule in India fell 304 years ago, after an era that was described by H.G.Wells as “The most beautiful and the greatest era India has ever lived through it’s history” (The Mongols dynasty from 1526 – 1707).
- Muslims grasped the Phoenicians field of glass treatment, and took from Egyptians the textile arts. They benefited from the Syrians in the field of cotton treatment and from Persians in the field of silk treatment as well.
- The Arab chemists were the first ones to come up with soap. They built a huge paper factory in Baghdad and benefitted from the Chinese methods in paper industry. It was transferred to Andalusia and through Andalusia , the paper industry knew it’s way to Europe with Samarkand city being known as the best city of paper production at the time.
- Baghdad’s population in the 11th century reached the 2 million and was the biggest city in the world at the time being.
- In the time of the Caliphate Al-Ma’mun there was around 11,000 churches, hundreds of Jewish synagogues and Fire worshippers. The first University that was ever made (according to Guinness records) was called “Bayt al-Hikmah” that was created at the time of “Harun al-Rashid” and his son “Abdullah al-Ma’mun” in 840 AD.
- “Bayt al-Hikmah” university used to teach sciences of Koran, Hadeeth, Fiqh, Linguistics, History, Civilization, Astronomy, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Music, and Engineering.
- Education at its primary phase was for free and every student from all around the great Muslim Empire used to head to Makkah, Madinah, Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad in their seek for education.
- The Caliphate “Al-Naser” used to search and debate with the famous philosopher “Ibn-Rushd” about the philosophies of Aristotle and Plato at the time where the nobles, kings and queens of Europe where bragging about their illiteracy. The Umayyad Caliphate used to own a library that holds 400,000 folder, while we saw “Charles V” the king of France who was called “The Wise” after 400 years, bragging about his library that held 1000 folder only.
- “Ahmad al-Ya’qubi” mentioned that he in 891 AD, counted more than a 100 library in Baghdad alone. Al-Najjaf small library owned more than 40,000 folder, “Abi al-Fida'” (was one of the Kurdish princes) owned in his library 70,000 folder, “Al Mo’ayad” library at the south of the Arabian peninsula owned more than 100,000 folder, “Maraghah” library had 400,000 folder, whilst the biggest library of all was located in Cairo and called “Al Aziz” owned 1,600,000 folder (It had 6,500 folder for mathematics, 1,800 folder for philosophy).
- During the Muslim rule in Andalusia, most of the people of Andalusia knew how to read and write at the time were writing and reading in Europe was a matter of priests and men of Church. The Andalusian civilization was a temptation for the priests, men of church, and education seekers so they all came from all parts of Europe in seek of knowledge in the universities of Cordoba, Seville and Toledo, getting their knowledge from the Muslim scientists and professors.
- In the year 850 AD, there was about 34 hospitals around the Muslim Empire. Damascus’s hospital was being run with generous money by the Caliphate and was well equipped for both the rich and the poor, was also being run by 24 different doctors.
- Water systems were created in Sarajevo before London by 148 years and before Vienna by 378 years while public bathrooms were spread around the Muslim Empire.
- The Caliphate “Al-Mansur” ordered to translate the astronomy books that were written 450 years BC. “Ibrahim Zarkali” created Toledo scale. “Ibn al-Haytham” (who was a Muslim scientist from Andalusia) wrote an important book about optics, and this book became the main source for Europe’s scientists like “Roger Bacon”.
- With all these historic facts concerning the history of the Islamic Empire, why Islam is pictured they way we see it nowadays as a religion of intolerance, terrorism and savagery?. With un-believable bragging we see lots of European historians while documenting the history of mathematics, jumping with ease from “Euclid” the Greek who died the year 720 BC to the very first levels of mathematics in Europe, ignoring thousands of years in-between where mathematics were developed on the hands of lots of Muslim mathematicians as if mathematics died, got mummified and buried till Europeans came and extracted it’s secrets out of the underworld.
- In these Islamic centuries, “Ibn Ahmad” the mathematician was able to come up with the number “Zero” and suggested it to be used by mathematicians in his book “Keys of Sciences”. And nowadays mathematicians know the great importance of this number that formed the basics of Computer knowledge. “Gerard da Cremona” in the 12th century, translated “Muhammad Ibn Moussa Ibn Shaker” book “Calculation of Circles and equations”, translated “Al-Khawarizmi” book “On Algebra and Mucabala”, translated “Jabir Ibn Aflah” book “Elementa Astronomica” and translated works by “Al-Razi”. He over all translated 87 books from the Arabic language.
- “Muhammad Ibn Jabir al-Batani” in the 10th century is considered to be the one who put the basic laws of Trignometry. Expressions like Sine, Cosine, Tangent, Cotangent, and Trignometric system are all Islamic expressions and “Hassan al-Marakichi” added on those expressions the first Trignemtric tables, and all of them were put by Muslim scientists.
- So it is unfair to put labels like “ignorance, terrorism and savagery” alongside Islam. This article would be one of many future articles that put the spot light on the accomplishments of the Islamic Empire in its different aspects, whether military ones, philosophical, religious, or scientific.
- Islam means to create a human being balancing between his soul and body and a society that its laws along with its social and economical institutions prevent this balance and doesn’t violate it. – Alija Izetbegovic`.
This post will be the final post of my illustration of Alija Izetbegovic’s book “Islam Between East and West”. This post is my translation of the introduction chapter by the author, i hope you enjoy it and i hope i delivered my message the right way.
The World of today features an ideological clash that we all are involved in it whether we are shareholders or victims, So what is Islam’s reaction from this titan clash ? and is there any part for Islam in forming this present World ? This book partially tries to answer this question.
There are only 3 integrative point of views towards this World, and they are : The Religious View, The Materialistic View, and the Islamic View. And these 3 views reflect primitive qualities which are ( Conscience, Nature, and Man ) each one of them is represented respectively in Christianity, Materialism and Islam. And We’ll find that all of the ideologies, Philosophies, and doctrinal teachings from the oldest of ages till our World today, in it’s final analysis, Can be traced back to one of those 3 main ideologies.
The first point launches from it’s beginning with the existence of the Soul, the Second with the existence of the Material, and third with the simultaneous presence of both Soul and Material, Because if the Material existed alone the Philosophy applied on it will only be the Materialistic Philosophy. On it’s contrary if the Soul existed , Therefore Man will exist too. And Man’s life becomes meaningless without sorts of Religion and Ethics. And Islam is the name that’s called upon the unity of Soul and Material, and it’s the highest definition for Man himself.
The Humane life is only completed when it has the Sensual desires and the Spiritual longings for the Human being. And all of the humane fails are traced back to the Religious denial of the biological necessities of Man or the denial of the Materialistic doctrine for the Man’s Spiritual goals.
Our Ancient fathers assured the existence of 2 things : The Mind and the Material, and according to that they comprehended the existence of 2 elements, 2 systems from different origins, and different nature, the one wasn’t created from the other, and cannot reduce one in another as well. Even the most genius aspects in the World couldn’t avoid this unique difference between the both perspectives no matter how we changed its entry. And we can imagine those 2 World separated by time, Which means they are 2 Worlds following each other in a different course of time (The Present and the Next), or a 2 Worlds existing at the same time but different in Nature and concept, and this is closer to reality.
Duality is the closest feelings to Man, but it’s not necessarily the greatest humane Philosophy. On the contrary , all of the major Philosophies were monistic propensity. The Man during his life may discover through his experience the duality of the World, but the unitary is latent in every humane thought. For Philosophy doesn’t approve duality. And still, its not important what Philosophy approves or disproves because Life, and it’s higher than thought, shouldn’t be judged by it. And since we are humans, we live factually. And we may deny those 2 Worlds, but we cant run away from them, because life doesn’t stop much on our perspective towards it.
Therefore, the question isn’t whether we’re living 2 lives , but the question is : Do we realize that while understanding its reality ? and in that, lies the final meaning of Islam. Life is dual,
and it became practically impossible for us to live one life since the moment we stopped being Plant or Animal, or when the ethical standards were created or “When man was dropped into this World”.
We don’t have rational evidence concerning the existence of another World, but we have this obvious feeling that Man isn’t here just for consuming and producing. Higher purpose of life isn’t presented through thinking for Scientists and Thinkers who run after the truth, even their life whom they spent on finding the truth, ignoring their physical necessities in a sense is the highest form of the humane existence.
The 2 lines of thinking that were discussed during the humane history are paralleled, and it’s easy to identify them. Although they continually clash, they remained till this day not revealing any kind of essential progress.
The first line starts with “Plato” and extends to the Christian thinkers in the Middle ages, followed by “El-Ghazaly”, “Dekart”, “Malebranche”, “Leibniz”, “Berkley” , “Fichte”, “Cudworth”, “Kant”, “Hegel”, “Mach”, and “Bergson” in modern age. The materialistic line is presented by “Thales”, “Anksmenderis”, “Heraclitus”, “Lucretius”, “Hobbes”, “Helvetius”, “Holbach”, “Diderot”, “Spencer”, and “Marx”. And in the field of the practical humane goals those 2 lines stand in the Human thought on odds, the current represents the humane doctrine, while the second represents the progress. There is no progress in the Western understanding of Religion, and Science doesn’t lead to humanity.
Anyway, In reality there’s no abstract Religion or abstract Science, For example there’s no Religion without some Scientific references and there’s no Science without Religious form of hope. This reality created a mixture that is hard to find among it the right origin or the right place for a certain idea or a certain direction. And we, discussing the 2 ideas, aim to reach their clear form with their logical results at the end, and some times vague. We’ll find that they are both logical systems from the inside and shut upon themselves. But for lots of us the picture would look sudden. For each one of them interprets the other as if it’s a mosaic containing gaps that can be filled with opposite argument. So in a way Materialism claims that the objective factors is independent from Man, it’s the main engine of historical events, We must predict in the second level of the dialects level a total opposite idea from this one. And indeed after a little search the idea of the heroic interpretation to history appeared, the same way with “Carlyle” who tends to say that all of the historical events can be interpreted through the effects of strong characters represented by geniuses. And by this way, Materialists contradict each other, for some say that “The Historian doesn’t walk upon his head ” Karl Marx, and others say that : Geniuses make history.
And by this last example, We find historic materialism versus Christianity, and with the same logic : Creation versus Evolution, ideals versus interests, freedom versus symmetry, individuality versus society etc.
The Religion call for destroying desires has a different paralleled meaning in the concept of Civilization which is “Always create new desires”. And in the tables that are being put in that book, the reader will see a much detailed attempt to categorize the ideas and opinions based upon this form. And the result, although not complete, Can show us that Religion and
Materialism are the 2 main primitive ideas in the World that cannot be divided into smaller parts, and cannot be mixed with each other, and by this context we borrow a verse from the Koran which’s “He has let free the 2 bodies of flowing water, meeting together between them is a barrier which they do not transgress” – Al Rahman verse 19 & 20.
It’s impossible to find a logical excuse to argue theses 2 major global ideas, because each one of them in it’s structure is a logical one, and there’s no other higher logic to condemn it. And there’s no, from the concept of experience or principle, a higher form of life other than humanity itself. To live, and above all to live a complete good life, and it’s a thing better than any Religion and any Socialism. Christianity offers a salvation, but it’s an inner one, while Socialism offers an outer salvation only. And we are standing in front of those 2 paralleled worlds that their logic are totally clashed with no cure, We feel deep inside ourselves that we ought to accept those 2 worlds together in an attempt to find a new natural balance for them. For the opposite doctrines divide the truth as much as it divides the Man’s fate.
There are some main facts that every human being takes in consideration in this life, Regardless the Philosophical vision that he follows. Man learned this through common sense, or through his successes or fails, These facts contain : The Family, The Materialistic security, Happiness, Righteousness, Honesty, Health, Education, Freedom, Interest, Power, Responsibility, etc.
So if we analyzed these facts, we’ll find that it rotates around one center, and forms in its totality a practical system that may not be synchronized and incomplete, but it recalls in our memory the facts of Islam.
The differences between the main doctrines for the 2 currents we mentioned before seems like it can’t be exceeded, but it’s only like that from the theoretical point of view, but in the practical life, the situation is different. Those who fought against something in the past agree on the same thing in our current day, and only few thoughts remain just like an orient that gives the theory a better look.
Marxism refused the family and the state, but from the practical side, it kept those 2 foundations. And every abstract Religion condemns the Man’s busyness with his life, but because Religion is the faith of living people it accepted the struggle for justice and the struggle for the existence of a better world. Marxism had to accept a degree of individual freedom and Religion to accept using sorts of Power, now it’s clear to see that Man while practicing his factual life, Cannot live on the behalf of a certain fixed Philosophy.
And the question is : Can those 2 systems find an exit and at the same time remain as they are ? the practical reality says something else, Because for them to synchronize with practical life each one of them borrows the other. Christianity that turned to a Church, started talking about work, fortune, power, education, science, marriage, laws, social justice, with lots of other things in practical life. And on the other side, we find that Materialism turned to Socialism or a system or state, started to talk about humanity, morals, arts, creativity, justice, responsibility, freedom, etc
So instead of the abstract beliefs we were given interpretations of these beliefs for daily use, And the distortion of both Religion and Materialistic sect continued according to a certain law. And in both cases the problem was one : How can a thing that represents only one part of life be applied on the whole factual life while it’s even more complicated?
From the theoretical part the Man can be Christian or Materialist, for he is extremist in a way or another, but things in reality don’t work that way, not for the Christian nor the Materialist.
The new utopias in China, North Korea and Vietnam, consider itself the most stable and consistent form of Marxism teachings. And for real, these utopias are considered good examples for moderate solutions and for the inconsistency from the practical point of view. So instead of letting itself taking time to formulate standards that reflect new relationships in the Economical base, it simply took the usual moral standards that’s prevailing especially 2 of them which are : Moderation and the respect to the elderly. And by this way, we found the extreme Marxism borrowing the 2 ruling principles that are found in the current Religion. And the compilers of this system admit it whether they like it or not, but facts remain as it is regardless of our recognition towards it.
In some of the socialist countries people are awarded by moral incentives due to their work’s consistency along the material incentives as well, although the moral incentives cannot be interpreted among the Materialistic Philosophical understanding, and the same thing is applied on the calls for : Humanity, Justice, Equality, Freedom and Human rights. Because the source of all these calls is Religion. But with no doubt , that every human being has the right to live the way he wants and the way he sees it suits him most, with his right to be incompatible with his own ideology. Anyway, in order to understand this World a true understanding, it’s important to know the true source of thoughts that rule this World, and to also understand it’s meaning.
In a study that we are about to discuss grave dangers lie within, represented in what they call “Things that appear so clear”, and ideas that are well accepted by the masses. The sun doesn’t rotate around the Earth, although it’s what we see. And the whale isn’t a fish regardless the fact that most think it is. Socialism and freedom never meet together, despite all of the convincing attempts. Regardless the prevailing distortion, ideas remain as it is while it’s affecting the World, not in its imposed meaning or it’s timely nature, but according to it’s original principles we are approaching Islam’s definition in a different way than usual. With keeping the main points in our heads, we can say that Islam means to understand and to admit the initial duality of the World, and then defeating it.
The formulated description that’s represented in the word “Islamic”, as we use in this book, not only to explain the rules that are mostly known to be Islam, but to also identify the basic principles that involves it. By this, Islam becomes a definition of a method more than a predated organized solution, and it means : the combination that unifies the opposing principles. This main principle of Islam reminds us of the study that life was created upon. Because inspiration that attached between Freedom of mind and determinism of nature as shown in life, seems it is also the same inspiration that attached between ablution “wodo'” and the prayer in a unit that’s called “Islamic Prayer”. An instinct that’s very powerful that can build Islam through his meditation in prayer, and he can through his meditation in Islam to assess the duality that includes the Universe.
Europe couldn’t reach a moderate road (Although England sort of tried to be an exception in this field). Therefore , it’s not possible to express Islam by European definitions. Because Islamic expressions like : “Salah” prayer, Zakat, Khalipha “Caliphate”, Jama’a, Wodo’ “ablution” , and lots of other expressions that has no opposite meaning in European languages. Defining Islam as a compound that consists of Religion and Materialism, and that it stands a moderate position between Christianity and Socialism, and it’s an approximate definition that can be accepted under certain conditions. It’s a definition that’s somehow true, but with certain parts and not all. Because Islam isn’t just a simple central mathematical issue nor it is a common ideology between those 2 doctrines. For prayers, zakat, wodo’ (ablution) are things that cannot be divided because it is an expression of a simple natural feeling, it is a certainty that’s expressed by one word with one picture, however it still represents a significant dual system. And symmetry with Man in this case is clear, for man is her interpreter and her scale.
Some people who read Koran by an analytical critical view will feel that Koran from the objective side doesn’t follow a certain system, and will seem like it was assembled from scattered elements. But, it should be clear and understood that Koran is not a literary book but a life. And Islam itself is a way of life more than a way of thinking. The only inherent comment on Koran is to say that it’s “Life” .And as we know this life in it’s embodied model is the life of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Islam in it’s written formula (I mean Koran) may sound unorganized from the outside, but Koran in the life of Muhammad PBUH proved that it’s a natural union : Of “love and power”, “transcendental and realistic”, “Spiritual and epidermal”. And this combinational explosive vitality of Religion and Politics provides a massive power to the lives of the societies that embraced Islam. In one moment Islam matches the life’s essence.
Islam’s position “the moderate” can be realized through the fact that Islam always been attacked by the 2 opposing sides : Religion and Science. From the religious side Islam been accused of being too much interacted with nature and reality, and that it’s adapted to life and materialistic life. And from Science’s point of view Islam been accused of having religious elements and cult ones. And in reality there’s only one Islam, but it’s the same as Man (has a body and a soul). For it’s contradicting sides depend on the differences of opinions. Materialists only see in Islam it’s religious form and it’s occult one (a Rightist direction), while Christians see Islam as a social political movement (a Leftist direction).
The impression of duality repeats itself through the look at Islam from the inside, for there’s no single Islamic institution that could be counted as an abstract form of religion only, nor an abstract form of science as well, especially when it contains elements of politics and economy. The Sufis always assured the religious sides of Islam only, while rationalists assured the other side, and both groups didn’t have an easy road with Islam, because of a simple truth that Islam cannot be bound in an understanding of one of the both groups ignoring the other. Take for example Wodo’ “ablution” : The Sufi sees it as a form of religious wash with religious meanings, while the rationalist sees it as an issue of physical cleanness. And both are right but partially. And the insufficiency of the Sufi interpretation that ignored the physical cleanness in ablution so that he bounded ablution into an abstract form, and surrendering to the same concept in other issues, we’ll see that this understanding bounds Islam in it’s abstract religious form through excluding all of the materialistic, rational and social ingredients from Islam. Whole rationalists took the other opposite direction through ignoring the religious element in Islam, and through this they bounded Islam into an abstract Political movement, making it a sort of nationalism, or what’s could be called “Islamic Nationalism deprived from it’s religious and ethical essence, empty and equaled with all other Nationalities in this field”.
And in that case to be a Muslim doesn’t require a call or a duty or an ethical religious obligation or any positive position towards cosmic truth. But it only means the belonging to a certain group of people different from another one. Islam was never just a nation but it’s probably a call for a Nation “that enjoins what is good and forbids what is evil”. Which means it’s calling for an ethical message. And if we omitted the political ingredient of Islam and abstracted it on the Sufi religious one, we’ll be following blindly drowned in slavery. And on the opposite, if we omitted the religious ingredient of Islam we’d stop being an ethical power. So does it matter anymore if imperialism was called Britain or Germany or Islam, as long as it remains just a power that oppresses people?
For the future of Man and his practical activity, Islam means to create a human being balancing between his soul and body, and a society that it’s laws along with it’s social and economical institutions prevent this balance and doesn’t violate it. Islam is –and it should be remained like this- the continued search through history for the balancing condition of the outside and the inside. This is Islam’s purpose today, and it’s Islam’s fated duty in the future.
The problems that we deal with in that book are somehow synchronized with a form or another with the features that shape the current historic event. And I mean by this : The division of the World into 2 clashed camps based on ideological conflict. The confrontation between the ideas is reflected upon reality with an apparent clarity that was never seen before, taking practical forms that are strictly shaped. It is extremely regretful, that this clash increases day after day. And shows us 2 worlds that are divided into their core, politically, ideologically and emotional. We are seeing with our own eyes a historical example about the duality of the Man’s world. But still there’s a part of the World that’s not affected by this clash, most of it formed of Islamic countries. And this phenomenon didn’t rise up coincidentally. For Islam is dependent from the ideological side –biased- and it’s so because of it’s nature.
The operation of political and ideological independence for Muslim countries will continue, and it won’t be a political disengagement only, it will be followed by strict requests to get rid of foreign affections and doctrines, whether they are eastern or western. This is Islam’s normal condition in the world of today.
Islam that’s having a moderate position between east and west had to exactly know the concept of its message. And now, it became more and more clearer that these clashed ideologies with its extreme forms –cannot be forced on human race, and it must head to a new formula and a new moderate position- we’d like to point out that Islam is compatible with this natural way of thinking, and it’s the most tuned expression. The same when Islam during the past was the “broker” that ancient civilizations passed through to west, has nowadays again to –and as we are at the age of the major dilemmas and options- bear it’s role “as a moderate nation” in a divided world. This is the meaning of the third road, road of Islam.
And at last, I would like to finish using few words about this book itself. This book is divided into 2 main sections : The first section discusses generally the issue of religion, while the second section discusses Islam, and to be more accurate a certain part of it, which’s : Duality.
And again I repeat, that this book is not about theology and it’s author is not a theological man. It’s probably an attempt to translate Islam to a language the new generation talks with and understands it. And off from this point there might be insufficiency or defect, for there is no translation that’s empty of insufficiency and imperfection.
The book “Islam between east and west” is not a theological book, but it’s a book that discusses the beliefs of Islam and it’s institutions and doctrines, meaning to discover Islam’s position in part of universal intellect. It’s not a vision inside Islam; it’s rather a vision from the outside. By this meaning, the issue of the book is not about Islam as an instructor but as a vision towards the World.
This book has 2 sections the first section carries the name : Introductions, and it discusses generally the issue of religion, while the second is about Islam’s duality.
Introductions in fact are a discussion about atheism and materialism. While the next 6 chapters discuss the situation of both religion and atheism concerning the Man’s origin and other issues that are connected to it, meaning the issue of evolution and creationism as follows:
Chapter 1 : Creationism and Evolution
Chapter 2: Culture and Civilization
Chapter 3 : The phenomenon of art
Chapter 4 : Morality
Chapter 5 : Culture and History
Chapter 6 : Drama and Utopia
And the theory according to inner logic of things shows that evolution, civilization, science, and utopia are paralleled with atheism, while creationism, culture, art and ethics are paralleled with religion.
Evolution by its nature, regardless the fact of its complicity or the time it took in order to work, couldn’t create a Man but created a perfect animal, or he was made that way to become a member of a society.
Socialism as a practical and social result for materialism doesn’t deal with Man, but mostly deal with organizing the social life of an Animal.
Mainly, the Man is a spiritual element and not a biological or social one and cannot exist unless by the act of God creation. Therefore, if God didn’t exist man wouldn’t too, and if Man didn’t exist culture wouldn’t exist as well, what will exist will only be needs and what satisfies these needs, in another meaning, only the existence of civilization.
Atheism acknowledges science and progress. While in its essence there’s everything that denies the Man, and for the same reason it denies humanity, freedom, and human rights. The contradiction between culture and civilization assures in reality a main contradiction between conscience and mind, between existence and nature, or in the practical level between religion and science.
Every culture is a believer in its essence, and every civilization is atheistic. And according to that, as science doesn’t lead to humanity and –in principle- there’s nothing in common between science and culture, religion itself doesn’t lead to progress. And by expansion in this analysis and deepening it, the first section of the book acknowledges this overall duality for the humane world presented in those insoluble contradictions between the soul and the body, between religion and science, between culture and civilization. This look towards this world reflects what’s called the Christian level to the humane awareness.
Socialism is also an expression to the same level of awareness. The impasse itself is also cast, only the choice is different, and the Non-Christian socialism is the overturned of Christianity. For the socialistic values are Christian ones with a denied sign, in fact it’s opposite alternatives : instead of religion we find science, instead of individualism we find society, instead of humanity we find progress, instead of upbringing we find training, instead of love we find violence, instead of freedom we find social security, instead of human rights we find social rights, and instead of kingdom of God we find kingdom of Earth.
Can man defeat this contradiction : either this or that, either heaven or earth, or is Man condemned to be always tensed forever between both ? Is there somehow a way that through it science can serve religion, health, devotion, progress, and humanity? can the utopia of earth’s kingdom be inhabited by humans instead of anonymous individuals without faces, and has the features of God’s kingdom on Earth?
The second section of the book is devoted to that question. And the answer is : Yes, in Islam. Islam isn’t just a religion or a way of life only, but its mainly the principle of cosmic order. Islam was found before Man and Islam as the Koran stated is the principle of how the Man was created upon. Therefore we find a harmonic connate between Man and Islam, or as the book calls it the stratification of Islam along with Man.
Just as the Man is the unity of soul and body, Islam is the unity of both religion and social order, and also just as the body during the prayer can bound to the movement of the soul, the social order by its turn can serve the higher ideals and values of religion and ethics. This unity, that’s strange to Christianity and the material doctrine, is an advantage in Islam.
This concept that we are about to discuss is being searched in the 2nd section of the book, through discussing a chain of issues in the fields of religion, law, culture, and the political history.
This section starts with a comparison between the messages of Moses, The Messiah, and Muhammad (Peace be upon them), and it pictures three primitive answers that shows the confrontation between the human race and history, whilst Koran is a unique combination that combines between the reality of the “Old Testament” and the idealism of the “New Testament”.
In the 8th chapter there’s an analysis about the main 5 pillars of Islam where prayer occupies its backbone.
The prayer in fact is the summary of Islam as a whole; Its Islam’s code. And the reference to that is that prayer combines between 2 principles in one frame considered a contradiction in the Christian point of view, which I mean by this is wodo’o “ablution” and prayer. Those 2 principles go deep down inside in the structure of Islam. Rationalism that refuses the inner vision, and the inner vision that refuses the rational entrance, violates “the principle of balance in prayer”. Any single sided extremism in those both understandings is considered a descent to the level of Christian logic, violating the center of Islam. And if Islam represents the potentials instinct of man, it must have an appearance somewhere on an incomplete form, or as a fragments between here and there where religious people who are in faith or working are found, meaning where the religious people don’t forget their part in the world. The author noticed the symptoms of this phenomenon especially in the Anglo-Saxon world.
And the book ends with an article about submission to God considering him the soul of Islam.
” There are Atheists who have morals, but you’ll never find an Atheistic system that’s built on morality ” – Alija Izetbegovic.
Islam is a dual unite of System
Alija Izetbegovic sees that we cannot apply Islam correctly in an underdeveloped society, Because the moment the society applies Islam correctly it automatically starts to abandon the underdeveloped zone and enters the zone of Civilization. Therefore, Koran assures that God created Man to make him his successor on Earth and be it’s “Lord”….Which gives the Man the qualifications of controlling Nature and the World through knowledge and Education, and Izetbegovic says in another position ” The insisting of the Koran on the right of fighting Evil and Injustice is not expressed by the narrow reflection of piousness, because the concept of Non-Violence and Non-Resistance are more closer to the abstract Religion…..And when Koran ordered to fight; i t ordered to fight instead of submitting to Injustice and humiliation….Koran wasn’t setting principles of an abstract Religion or morality, Koran was setting Social and Political rules “. And then later, Izetbegovic comments on the forbidding of Alcohol in Islam by saying ” Banning the drinking of Alcohol was a first class treatment of a Social Evil Phenomena and there’s nothing against Alcohol in an abstract Religion, There are even some Religions that used Alcohol as a made up process in order to evoke the Spiritual ecstasy just like Scented Incenses, But when Islam forbid Alcohol it used the road of Science and not the road of the abstract Religion “.
The Secret of the Muslims degeneration
and Izetbegovic asks : What caused the degeneration of the Muslims the way we see these days ?….and he answers ” Islam’s duality of unity was divided by people who framed Islam on it’s Religious side only , making it lose it’s unity which’s Islam’s unique personality that gives an advantage of itself over other Religions , They framed Islam into an abstract Religion or sort of Sufism that eventually destroyed the Muslims conditions; because when the Muslims activities get lesser and weaker they stop reacting with the Society and start to ignore their parts in the World causing the authority in the Muslim Country to become naked serving only itself and not the people, and the abstract sleeping Religion starts to drag the Society into ignorance, While Kings, Atheist Scientists, Negative Sufism, Drunk Poets start all to form the outer face to the inner division that hit Islam ” .
The Western hostility towards Islam
In this field, Izetbegovic points out that the current Western hostility towards Islam is not just an extension of the usual hostility and the Civilizational clash that reached to a military aggression between Islam and the West since the Crusades till the wars of Independence, but this hostility is originally formed because of the West’s historical experience with Religion and it’s inability to comprehend Islam’s unique nature, Therefore he presents 2 essential reasons for this hostility which are : The nature of the Western ideology (the single visioned ideology); and the insufficiency of the European language structure to understand the Islamic terms, and he gave few examples concerning this issue like : Zakat – ablution (wodo’) – Khelafah (the order of the Caliphates rule) and Ummah where you can’t find opposite meanings in European language for these terms. And Izetbegovic sees also the Islamic terms have dual unite system, and because of those 2 reasons as Izetbeogic says ” The Western Materialists denied Islam because it’s a Religion with occult (Rightist direction), while Christians denied it because they saw a Social – Political movement inside of it (leftist direction), and this is how the whole West denied Islam “.
The Author sees that if the West truly want to understand Islam correctly, The West must reconsider it’s terms that are being directed towards Islam.
With this strong logic and the well done analysis, Alija Izetbegovic shows the weaknesses of the Western ideology, also it’s contradictions in dealing with the issue of “Man” and life.
“I have finished with my illustration of Izetbegovic’s book Islam between East and West. One more post i will make which will be the translation of the Introduction chapter by the Author ” .